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Air University ELL Research Portal

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Current trends: Negotiating space in English Studies

Professor Emeristus, Ruqaiya Hasan, Mcquarie University, Sydney

Topic: The anatomy of verbal art: thoughts on engaging with language in literature


That the arts are somehow good for us is a common idea, but explaining what is meant by ?Ç£good?Ç¥ or ?Ç£us?Ç¥ or even ?Ç£art?Ç¥, is a tricky business.

[Morrison, A lesson with the art master, 2005: 26]

That literature is represented as language is obvious to all: this attribute, it shares with such texts as specialist discourses in the valued domains of knowledge, and of scriptures and legislature ?Çô it is such discourses that become a culture?ÇÖs cherished emblem of achievement and excellence.  But what sets literature apart from all such valued documents is the specific kind of demands literature makes on language whereby every thing that is of any consequence to the identification of literature as verbal art can be said to have been created ?Çô directly or indirectly ?Çô by the power of language.  

This is the theme I would like to develop in my presentation. In the discourse of literary criticism, the creativity of the language of literature has been so constantly and widely circulated that the term has become a clich??. I hope to offer a conception of this expression which will distance it from the simple citation of tropes and images as a mark of creativity: instead, linguistic creativity will be presented as a concept powerful enough to function as the foundation of a robust framework for the study of literature. The conception I will put forward allows the analyst to show that art in verbal art is not like a beautiful body shimmering through the robe of linguistic meaning; rather, the art itself is verbal and the language is artistic in ways that assist the examination of literature as an actively functioning element of culture.  

Prof Riaz Hassan, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad

Topic: Unresolved Language Issues in Pakistan


The speaker traces the ups and downs of English in our scheme of things since the country?ÇÖs inception. Pakistan still has unresolved language issues, which is one reason for its indifferent performance in a number of important fields. Different top-down remedies have been tried, none of which has worked, and some of which, with the best of intentions, have proved to be destructive. The speaker?ÇÖs first concern is higher education, which cannot be separated from the society it is supposed to serve. In the interests of internationalism, present approaches are outward rather than inward looking, but linguistically, at least, the nation is poorly prepared for it. 

Prof Samina Amin Qadir, Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi

Topic: Classroom Ethnography: A Neglected Research Paradigm

The purpose of this paper is to explore what is Ethnography in broad terms and to look at Classroom Ethnography specifically. Research culture is slowly making its presence felt in Pakistan. Teachers, especially ELT specialists, are gradually becoming aware of the importance of research in their professional development. In this regard, Classroom Ethnography is a research paradigm that has not been explored by our academia. This paper will look at the range and scope of Classroom Ethnography in our ELT scenario. It will highlight how this research can be rewarding for both teachers and learners in identifying and resolving pedagogic variables that may facilitate or impede language learning. It will narrate two specific researches that were conducted based on the tradition of Classroom Ethnography. The purpose is to show how interpretive analyses of the events occurring in the classroom can enrich the repertoire of the teachers and enhance their expertise both as researchers and as academics.

Professor Zakia Sarwar, Founder SPELT, Karachi

Topic: Teaching Language through Literature


Learners young and old, enjoy poetry as well as stories, provided they can comprehend them. So it is a challenge for the teacher to bring such texts to the level of the learner.

The aim of this workshop is to demonstrate how literary pieces can be used with students with lower proficiency levels. Therefore, a classic Shakespearian text and a short story from Mark Twain have been selected to exploit for lower level students, who have to study such texts as a part of their course work, but find it difficult and boring  to navigate them.

Participants of the workshop will be given a practical experience of using these classic pieces in innovative ways to make them interactive and easier for students?ÇÖ understanding, besides building their language learning skills so that they can understand as well as enjoy them.

Participants will be given opportunities to share their problems in teaching compulsory English courses, specially in large classes, and discuss ways to make teaching of English interesting for their learners.

 Handouts of activities and principles of teaching language through literature will be shared with the participants by the facilitator.

Dr Mubina Talaat, Air University, Islamabad

Topic: Clause Complexes in SFL and Style Analysis of Literary Texts


Systemic Functional Linguistics offers a new approach to the analysis of language in all instances of its use in different contexts. In recent years, it is increasingly used to study style in literary texts. There are a number of ways in which SFL can be used for style analysis of literary texts.
In this presentation, I shall demonstrate how a sequence analysis of clause complexes in some given literary texts can help understand the patterns of meanings as well as the patterns style. 

Dr Hina Ashraf, from Air University, Islamabad & Luqman Hakim from National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad

Topic: A study of synchronic variation in students?ÇÖ codeswitched discourse


Based on data collected through directive interaction, this paper explores students?ÇÖ responses in codeswitched English and Urdu discourses referred to as ?ÇÿPakistani?ÇÖ (See Ashraf & Luqman 2010). The study focuses over the synchronic variation in the Pakistani language, as we explore the patterns of Urdu and English insertions in a total of 324 utterances of more than a 100 students from different educational and age backgrounds. Using corpus tools, the paper explores variations in function words, collocation patterns, their positioning in the utterance and frequencies of insertions in the base language.

Anthony Capstick, British Council, Islamabad

Topic: Continuing Professional Development Framework (CPD) Workshop


The TeachEnglish Continuing Professional Development Framework is a guide to the professional development opportunities for teachers of English available from the British Council and other ELT providers. This workshop demonstrates how the framework can be used to organize a range of opportunities through which teachers can develop across the stages of their careers (from ?ÇÿStarting?ÇÖ to ?ÇÿSpecialist?ÇÖ). The British Council recognizes that when dealing with new strategies for teacher education, the first consideration is the key role of teachers?ÇÖ agency (Quereshi and Shamim 2009). As such, the framework aims to enable teachers to look for ways to deal with new challenges by mapping British Council teacher training courses, resources from the TeachEnglish website, and other professional opportunities for teachers of English. By demonstrating these links between resources on the new ?ÇÿTrain?ÇÖ section of the website and the CPD framework, participants will experience first hand the opportunities both resources offer for improved classroom performance.

This session will be of interest to students considering pursuing a role in ELT as well as their teachers and academic managers who are further on in their teaching/management careers.

Dr Ajmal Gulzar, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad

Topic: Language Choice in Teachers?ÇÖ Informal Patterns of Talk


Apart from the negative perceptions of code-switching, teachers?ÇÖ code-switching (hereafter CS) whether in classroom discourse or informal/socialising discourse serves a variety of pedagogical purposes. So far, a few empirical studies on code-switching related to informal/socializing discourse are conducted in Pakistan. On the whole, however, there seems to be a lack of awareness on the part of Pakistani teachers about the significance of CS for informal/socialising discourse. This paper tries to identify the reasons for CS by observing how and why teachers code-switched and what specific pedagogical functions code-switching served in informal/socialising discourse. For this purpose, the reasons for teachers?ÇÖ socialized patterns of CS are investigated by using an ethnographic design. The data are collected from a series of Diploma TEFL lectures delivered by different resource persons/teachers. Analysis of the data showed that, in most of the cases, code switching by the teachers served some kind of pedagogical purpose or the other. This paper, although preliminary in nature, can help arrive better understanding of teachers?ÇÖ socialized pattern of code-switching. Further, it can also assist to get appropriate insights into the interactional patterns between teachers and students for socialising discourse. Finally, suggestions about the teachers?ÇÖ use of code switching related to socializing discourse are provided.

Dr Safeer Awan, Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad

Topic: Literary Globalization and English Studies: Exploring Critical Theory for Research and Pedagogical Practices


In the realm of literary studies, English studies has been facing challenges from such fields as American Studies, Postcolonial Studies, Comparative literature studies (in spite of Gayatri Spivak?ÇÖs provocative proclamation of its death in Death of a Discipline), women?ÇÖs studies/Gender studies, etc. Therefore, my brief presentation would explore the relevance of critical theory and its application to the study of arts, literature, and culture in general, especially in our own socio-cultural and political contexts and would suggest ways to liberate ourselves from the constraints of an intellectually limited and pedagogically unsatisfying paradigm for literary instruction by emphasizing the need and relevance of modern critical theory. R. S. Crane once proposed an approach, in which critical theories would be treated heuristically. Here different theories are abridged and combined into a "strategy" for the interpretation of texts?Çöa strategy which is "immensely rich in its critical potential". It gives teachers something to say about a text by contextualizing it in day to day affairs of the world and by relating it to the socio-economic, cultural/ideological concerns. Now it is sometimes said that if theory is to perform an oppositional role it must emphasize the relation between politics and such cultural practices as criticism and interpretation. And on this view any approach to teaching is fundamentally flawed which relaxes into an uncritical pluralism. To a disinterested observer the field of theory may look as if it were divided pluralistically among many different schools and isms, but an attitude of scholarly disinterestedness only serves the interests of dominant cultural powers. This radical approach draws its inspiration from Paulo Freire?ÇÖs Pedagogy of the Oppressed (1968). From this perspective, the teaching of theory must empower students by showing them how to disclose the ideological conditions behind any cultural performance, and then leading them to re-politicize their newfound knowledge by placing it in the context of the class struggle. At a stroke this removes the barricade between theory and practice, between academic inquiry and political agitation, because "what universities pay us to do?Çöteach?Çöis our main political praxis."

Dr Zunera Jalil, Air University, Islamabad

Topic: Exploring plagiarism in postgraduate writing: Copyright Protection and Digital Watermarking


Authentication and copyright protection of information contents has always been a concern in print media. The problem has become more critical with the increasing use of Internet and digital technologies. Besides image, audio and video, the text is most extensively used medium travelling over the Internet. Digital libraries offer a quick and easy access to information such as e-books, archives, images, etc. However, make the protection of copyright more complex and difficult. Increasing use of digital libraries, blogs and electronic commerce has made it a necessity to protect digital contents. Digital watermarking is a solution for copyright protection problem.  Digital Watermarking methods identify the original copyright owner (s) of the information contents. A digital watermark (visible or invisible code) is permanently is embedded in the data to be protected. Digital watermarking solutions for images, audio and video are already in plain but watermarking solutions for plain text documents are very inadequate and inefficient in terms of robustness against attacks. Text watermarking is a growing and challenging area of research, which might open the new horizon in digital security world.

Afroz Ilyas, Air University, Islamabad

Topic: Roles of questions in enhancing speaking skill


This research highlights the importance of Text and well designed questions based on it in ESL CLASS.  Text and  the specifically designed  analytical or critical questions based on this   text can make students proficient in speaking English. These questions when  posed  to  students   provide stimuli  for enhancement  of  fluency. Through  repertoire of questioning techniques which teachers  can utilize in class this research provides strategy to foster communication through critical and analytical thinking from high beginners to advanced level.

Afia Kanwal, Air University, Islamabad

Topic: Parental involvement, social class and language learning


Motivation is one of the most important factors in any learning situation. . Extrinsic motivation can be of help for teenagers who may not be intrinsically motivated at times. In Pakistan where school conditions are unsatisfactory, parents can come and play a role by providing the child with opportunities which can set forth their motivation. This work tends to explore the role of Pakistani parent to the enhancement of such motivation. However, different social classes may affect parenting differently due to the vast differences in class cultures and opportunities available.  According to Donald?ÇÖs Super, the family is a multidimensional setup, which is comprised of a social, a psychological and an economic dimension. It is within this context that children develop and are motivated. Child development is also influenced by the possibilities and the resources their family has to offer. However, belonging to a disadvantaged social class can cause social stigmatisation and influence motivation needed as pointed out by Pierre Bourdieu. The purpose of this research is to find out if parental involvement can motivate learning (language) equally regardless of the social class. A small scale pilot study was conducted to check the feasibility of the research. Through the study analysis it is clear that the social role of parents cannot be overlooked in the development of motivation to learn language.

Behzad Anwar, University of Gujrat, Gujrat

Topic: English in Pakistani print media: Distinctive grammatical and syntactic features of Pakistani English


English used in Pakistan has undergone considerable change after getting rid of colonialism. Pakistani English has developed its own grammatical and syntactic features which are shared by the other non-native varieties of English.  In this paper, some prominent grammatical and syntactic features of Pakistani English resulting from the interference of the Urdu language have been discussed. One of the most recognisable aspects of Pakistani English is the occurrence of Urdu words and phrases in Pakistani print media but in this particular paper only the grammatical and syntactic features have been discusses. Pakistani English evolved within a society which has a very specific social, cultural and political structures. Urdu is an important source to create the distinctiveness in Pakistani English. This paper is an attempt to show how Urdu impacts English in Pakistan although the influences are undoubtedly bidirectional. 

Kazim Kazmi

Topic: The Place of Socially and Politically Controversial Issues in English language Curriculum in Pakistan


This paper intends to explore the existing state of the English language curriculum for the secondary classes in Pakistan. It explores, to what extent it serves the needs of the intended citizenship and to what extent it meets the international standards set for the socially well equipped students. The very aim of education, the preparation of the socially informed citizen, is missing in this syllabus. The aspirations of the all concerned parties, the teachers, the students and the management have not been properly represented in the syllabus. Keeping in mind the inefficiencies and inadequacies of the syllabus some practical suggestions have been given at the end.

Kazim Shah & Rabia Tabassum, Government College University, Faisalabad

Topic: The Implications of Critical Literacy for Pakistani English teachers


Critical literacy involves understanding the ways in which language and literacy are used to accomplish social ends. Becoming critically literate means developing a sense that literacy is for taking social actions and making people aware of using literacy for their own ends.

This study explores that through Critical literacy approach better citizenship education can be given to our students. It further establishes the importance of critical literacy in the language classrooms and also focuses the need to use critical literacy approach for the language teachers in their respective classrooms. This study focuses that merely getting conceptual knowledge of language does not create critical thinking and an analytical mindset. For this study uses both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection, analysis. At first data is collected from the English teachers of various government colleges through questionnaire based on objectives of critical literacy designed by Critical literacy international forum and also interviews are held to seek the opinion of the experts from education department.

Maryam Dar, International Islamic University, Islamabad

Idiomatic Expressions and Cultural Markings


Many studies have confirmed the relationship between phraseology and culture (Humboldt 1963; Trier 1931;Porzig 1950; Weisbgerber 1929, 1961,1962;Sapir 1949, 1964 ; Whorf 1956).  Language of a society stems from the cultural habits of a given number of people. The present study was conducted to explore the relationship that exists between culture and figurative language and to establish the fact that L2 learners face difficulties in comprehending the phraseology of target language due to the differences in cultural practices. The sample for the study consisted of 40 students of Masters level of International Islamic University. The data was collected with the help of the diagnostic tests which consisted of two pats. First part of the test consisted of 30 general idioms and second part contained 30 cultural idioms. The scores were assigned with the help of a three point ranking scale. Percentages were calculated for the correct versus incorrect responses and presented in tabular form. The results reinforce the relationship between phraseology and culture. The data also asserts that L2 learners face difficulty in comprehending the phraseology of the target language owing to the difference in cultural practices.

Muhammad Arif Khan, Air University, Islamabad

Topic: Ice-Candy Man: A Narcissistic Narrative


Everyday life in global spectrum runs through many a complex crisis and many a complex crisis runs through life, simultaneously, and this crisis ridden life leaves overt and covert influences on  human beings in general and the literary writers in particular. The difference, in terms of in-put and out-put, between the two is, however, immense and the degree and level of influence and feeling, that life exerts and generates, is generally inexpressible. Therefore literary writers by creating any piece of literature  not only create or produce something new but its an invitation to writers, readers and critics to further thought. Such an incisive and penetrating approach towards life makes one realize that we are living in a world where truth and reality are consistently created, deconstructed and then reconstructed through the tool of language. It signifies, thereby, that there is no absolute truth. This idea characterizes Ice ?Çô Candy Man by Bapsi Sidhwa. And in the absence of no absolute truth her novel presents a good study for undermining the preconceived notions of historical truth (s) from a perspective hitherto unknown, perhaps. This aspect of the novel can best be explored through its study from Linda Hutcheon?ÇÖs concept of the ?Ç£narcissistic narrative?Ç¥. The present paper is thus an attempt to recreate or rediscover history from Ice-Candy Man?ÇÖs characters?ÇÖ self ?Çô assertive nature or existence towards self ?Çô realization or self ?Çô awareness. Memory of the chief narrator ?Çô Lenny along with other marginalized voices of undivided India is a key towards the novel being a narcissistic narrative.

Naveed Ehsan, Air University, Islamabad

Topic: Remediation and the challenge of Standard English in Pakistan

The research study deals with finding out some of the major causes behind the grammatical errors the Pakistani students at school level make. The study also seeks to give some remedial measures for improving the level of English, especially at school level in Pakistan. The major concern behind taking up this study is that the students studying professional courses at the higher levels still make simple grammatical errors and this poses a challenge for the teachers teaching at these levels. When these teachers start correcting simple mistakes and errors, the actual purpose and objectives of the technical courses is lost somewhere in the process.

The population sample taken for collecting data was a group of twenty students each from ten Government High Schools of Rawalpindi. Hence, this made a sample size of two hundred students studying at Matriculation level. The suggestions for remedial measures for the improvement of English language in Pakistan would come from interviews 

Noreen Mirza, works as a freelance master trainer

Topic: Blink blink?Ǫ. Think think ?Ǫ!


Gather information and then gather more information! That is what we have always been told. We live in a society dedicated to the idea that we're always better off gathering as much information and spending as much time as possible in deliberation. As children, this lesson was hammered into our brains: haste makes waste, look before you leap, stop and think. But the idea has been challenged. There are lots of situations--particularly at times of high pressure and stress--when haste does not make waste, when our snap judgments and first impressions offer a much better means of making sense of the world. Gladwell in his book ?ÇÿBlink?ÇÖ talks of --"the power of thin slicing"--which says that as human beings we are capable of making sense of situations based on the thinnest slice of experience it talks about rapid cognition, about the kind of thinking that happens in a blink of an eye. The question is; ?Ç£is teaching a thoughtful deliberation or intuitive??Ç¥ In the words of Parker Palmer ?Ç£Good teaching is an act of generosity, a whim of the wanton muse, a craft that may grow with practice. It is, to speak plainly, a maddening mystery. ?Ç£Good teaching cannot be equated with technique or having more information. It comes from the integrity of the teacher, from his of her relation to subject and students, from the capricious chemistry of it all.?Ç¥ In the rapidly evolving information landscape means that education methods and practices must evolve and adapt accordingly. ?ÇÿInformation literacy?ÇÖ must become a key focus of educational institutions at all levels.I want to share a few reflections on the mystery of intuitive teaching, whether in large lecture halls or small rooms. I want to name some of its challenges, and suggest some responses, without labeling it as a "problem to be solved." Only by doing so, it seems to me, can we enlarge the community of discourse that might encourage more and more of us to believe on the inner voice and teach well.

Rasib Mehmood, Air University, Islamabad

Topic: Little Eye to See the World Constructed by Eyes


The universe is very complicated for human beings to understand fully and it is expressed through language. Human beings have created so many senses and realities through languages that every reality so expressed is convincing on its own and yet clashes with so many others. The novel Siddhartha by Harman Hess shows the true pictures of different realities which have been constructed through language and experience and also deconstructed through experience and language. Siddhartha?ÇÖs journey towards his own self is the journey of the material world to the spiritual. Siddhartha?ÇÖs constant formulation of experience in language, and their rejection and reformulation show how complex those experiences are, and they are difficult to be fixed through language permanently. Because once formulated they may yet change the meanings and significance. The problem is that language is man made and he/she wants to present the reality of the world which is a natural desire. So man has become the master of systems and realities but even now he is unable to reach the fixed and final reality, because he wants to describe natural thing through language.

Syeda Aisha Bokhari, Air University, Islamabad

Topic: Teacher Training in Public and Private Sector Schools ?Çô Lets Collaborate


Teacher Training is one of the most important aspects of education. A trained teacher is more aware of the issues which need to be resolved in the classroom situation in order to enhance the learning process of the students .In Pakistan, there is a variety of schools that one comes across. In these, the the schools operated by the government are the largest in number. However, it is a common observation that the standard of education has deteriorated gradually. How can the situation be improved and what role can teacher training play in this regard is the topic of this presentation. By analysing the current situation and by comparing the teacher training practices being followed in the government and private sector schools, strategies will be recommended which if practised, will improve the current  situation in the government operated schools.

Tayyaba Aman, Government College University, Lahore

TopicTheatre, An agent of Social and Political Change


This paper aims to highlight the trend to use drama as a tool for socio/political change and theater?ÇÖs contribution in bringing about the social improvement, particularly through the epic theatre. The writer aims to highlight theater?ÇÖs notable contributions to improve humanity and human conditions and the notable presentations of the worthy playwrights and their impact on society, establishing a unique space through language and literature.

Human being is the product of society. Social change involves the processes whereby values, attitudes, or institutions of society (both formal and informal), such as education, family, religion, peer groups, recreational avenues and industry become modified and these are the vector for social change. Despite sharing the notion that the theater was the optimum setting for such communication and general notions of improving humanity, the various theories of theatrical performance came on the horizon including the epic theatre.

Uzma Anjum, ICG, F7, Islamabad

Topic: Attitudinal Shift and the process of enculturation: a case of dominance of the majority languages

This study is devoted to a serious concern of the writer about the diminishing fate of an indigenous language spoken in the north west of Pakistan in the presence of other mainstream languages. The present study highlights the important of language sustenance and vitality in a language situation where the ecological survival of minority languages is threaten by the predator majority languages. Moreover, there is no awareness for the protecting such precious and value able cultural and linguistic heritage. Potohari is one of such minority languages which are facing such threat. The present study is investigating the shift of attitude among the three generation of Potohari speakers. It is assumed that there is a gradual shift among the three generations Potohari speakers from their ancestral language to English and Urdu, dominant languages of the country, moreover it is due to the lure the higher socio economic status of these majority languages that the speakers are developing a negative attitude for their mother tongue. Potohari is the language spoken in some areas of Kashmir, Murree, Jehlum, Gujar Khan and Rawalpindi and areas around the capital of Pakistan, Islamabad.

The investigator has exploited Likert Scale of the attitude measurement for this proposed study.  The study included three samples of the native Potohari speakers, residing in Rawalpindi and Islamabad. It has been accomplished by the means of purposive sampling.  Investigation was conducted in three stages, which along with results will be shared.

Uzma Ghori, University of Wah, Wah Cantt

Topic: English Language in Pakistan has not yielded the Desired Objectives. Why?


The main purpose of this presentation is to have a healthy discussion about the problems regarding the improvement of English language in the field of education in Pakistan. 

The main features of this discussion is to cover the problems of L2 (second language)  acquisition for students and for teachers as well, that?ÇÖs why our students are not enough proficient in L2. Although we ourselves are teachers but we must admit that there is some negligence on our part, and we have to overcome them. Another issue we will discuss today is about students; that the students we receive from schools are not learners of L2, they are the crammers and both of them are the ground realities and my personal observation. In the last some suggestions for improvement of teaching system is also given and the suggestions for L2?ÇÖs further improvement will be highly appreciated.

From theory to practice: Scope of research in English language and literature

Professor Dr Riaz Hassan from National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad

Keynote address
In this seminal talk, Professor Riaz Hasan, stressed on the need of research on Pakistani language(s), and the status of English, its official and pedagogical usage in Pakistan. He highlighted the need of expanding the body of young academics in the field, and exploration of new avenues in this discipline. He gave an overview of the development of thought and philosophy in language, with a focus on English, and how various contributions paved way for new theories to emerge.

Dr Hina Ashraf from Air University, Islamabad

Operationalizing Bourdieu?ÇÖs theory of habitus
Drawing on qualitative and quantitative approaches of research, this presentation focused on operationalizing Bourdieu?ÇÖs theory of habitus to understand social capital formation in English and Urdu medium schools in Pakistan. The theoretical framework drew on theories of social capital and how they are affected by language learning opportunities. With a focus on an empirical study done in Karachi, this presentation was designed to develop postgraduate students?ÇÖ confidence in using mixed methods in research. 

Dr Safeer Awan from the International Islamic University, Islamabad

Critical Theory and the Teaching of English
The 20th century literary-critical theory brought about tremendous changes in the perceptions about and study of English throughout the Anglophone world. With the rise of English in Great Britain, in the wake of the Great War, theory also became the ideological site in the Anglo-American academy under the influence of Marxist and Freudian theories, and French Structuralist and Poststructuralist theories for cultural analysis. My contention in this presentation is to analyse the role of theory for classroom practices with focus on the teaching of English. I shall be addressing such concerns as ?Çÿthe question of ?Ç£Western Canon?Ç¥ and its relevance for the students and teachers of English in Pakistan; employment of various theoretical approaches in our search for meanings in cultural practices/analyses. The aim of the presentation is to make the audience alive to the theoretical debates surrounding the application of theory and its politics.

Naveed Ehsan from Air University

Citing your references
In this presentation, Mr Naveed Ehsan, introduced to the postgraduate students various referencing styles and how they are required to be incorporated in research papers. He also highlighted the significance of referencing to avoid plagiarism.

Micah Risher, from the Public Affairs Section, US Embassy, Islamabad

Reaching the World From Pakistan: From Local Action Research to a Global Audience
The presentation was meant to enable students understand the significance of action research, and how it could be incorporated in their research programmes. He also stressed on various techniques that could be employed by inexperienced writers to understand the demands of the academic community.

Afia Kanwal, from Air University, Islamabad

Understanding Statistics?Çöan Overview of Important Concepts

A quantitative researcher is an empirical researcher that refers to the systematic empirical investigation of quantitative properties and phenomena whereas the qualitative researcher is a detective in search of clues as to motivations, desires, beliefs, ways of thinking and words for description. While a qualitative researcher seems to be working with multiple realities which are difficult to show in terms of credibility and validity.
In order to show quantifiable results and make them efficient a researcher in social science must be aware of the different tools available to them. Since Statistics is the science of collection, analysis, interpretation or explanation, and presentation of data, It has wide usage in the field of research---all the data collection and interpretation techniques used in Research are part of statistics.  No matter what type of research one is working with both inferential and descriptive statistical techniques can come in handy during the data analysis and presentation stage.

Muhammad Arif, Reg # 100069

Applying Marxist Literary Theory on the poetry of Parveen Shakir with focus on "Steel Mills Worker" and "We Are All Dr. Faustus."

This presentation deals with Marxist literary criticism, focusing on two poems of Parveen Shakir ( a renowned Urdu poetess of Pakistan) translated by Alamgir Hashmi (a well known Pakistani English poet). Literature is a vital part of every human culture and is a powerful social tool. Apart from readers, philosophers and literary critics have for centuries been reading and analyzing it differently. But, because of rapid socio-political, cultural, religious and economic changes, during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries there emerged many literary theories changing the perception of a writer and reader towards life and literature. Marxist literary criticism is one such theory that lends one different angle of vision when it comes to the study and analysis of literary criticism. Presently, with arbitrary-capitalism playing havoc all over the world it has acquired greater relevance in literary fields. To say that it is yet again an emerging literary current will not be wrong.

Muhammad Ayaz Shafqat, Reg # 100070

Conversational Interviewing Approaches of Collaborative Language Systems

Interviews are measured as an authentic technique in doing qualitative research. Collaborative Approach or Post-Modern Collaborative Approach is a theory practiced in conversation for getting reliable data. In this paper, this theory is applied on interviews to get authentic data therefore it is named as Conversational Interviewing Approaches of Collaborative Language Systems. The multiple steps process of this theory would be useful for a researcher to implement the strategies to get real data. This process would useful to understand the essence interviewer as a researcher. The focus of this paper is to research for new patterns which can be possible after removing the differences between interviewer and interviewee. More focus is given on the data which a researcher gets from conversation. The analysis of received data is a latent step in this approach. There is always anticipation for emerging new patterns (Meta-Narratives Knowledge) for research to contribute realistically. The resourcefulness of this approach is that it expands the horizons of research.

Nailah Riaz, Reg # 100080

Riaz Hassan?ÇÖs *Plea: A Student/teacher?ÇÖs Perspective

This presentation throws light on the scope of research in a book (Teaching Writing to second Language Learners, 2008) by a Pakistani Linguist: Riaz Hassan who has mammoth?ÇÖs contribution to English Language and Linguistics in Pakistan  particularly and South Asia generally.

It talks about Riaz Hassan?ÇÖs publications, his book Teaching English to second Language Learners, 2008, and the focus of this book. It?ÇÖs demonstration lays out Riaz?ÇÖs *plea to the researchers and teachers and lets them know what a vast range of research (weaknesses in Language) they have in this work, especially asking the participants of the seminar to ponder on *remediation of writing, inviting them to experiment a theory of group work, pair work, individual work, changing groups, changing pairs, discovering better workability that might help the adult South Asian students to enhance quality of their research submissions for future research prospects.

Naveed ur Rehman Khattak, Reg# 100072

The Contribution of John J. Gumperz in the development of the idea ?Ç£Code-Switching?Ç¥

This presentation focuses on the contribution of John J. Gumperz in the development of the idea ?Ç£Code-Switching?Ç¥. It begins with the historical background of Code-Switching so as to enable the readers to know that how and when the idea of Code-Switching emerged. Then the main focus is on the efforts and works of John J. Gumperz for the development of this phenomenon. In this regard, his work ?Ç£Situational & Metaphorical Code-Switching?Ç¥ in 1972 and ?Ç£Conversational Code-Switching, along with the six basic functions of Code-Switching?Ç¥ in 1982, are discussed in detail. The study of these works will highlight the contribution of John J. Gumperz?ÇÖs work on ?Ç£Code-Switching?Ç¥ in establishing the forms and functions of it. This study will also show the importance of John J. Gumperz?ÇÖs work and its influence on his successors.

Rabia Malick, Reg#100059

Understanding Halliday?ÇÖs Systemic Functional Theory
This presentation is aimed at acquainting the audience with Professor M.A.K Halliday and the Systemic Functional Theory established by him. The presentation will present a layman?ÇÖs approach to the theory and also focus on it?ÇÖs practical application in the world and the students of Ms/MPhil English at Air University, Islamabad.

Saadia Minhas, Reg#100068

Attitude towards English language learning in Pakistan
In Pakistani community where different languages co-exist, language attitudes play an important role in the lives of the users of these languages. English language enjoys a high status in Pakistan as the language of education, law, science, technology and Government. It has become a status symbol, a refine medium of communication. It is the lingua franca among the provinces. The status of English as a language of power and elitism reflects the positive attitude towards English language learning in Pakistan.

Saima Bilal, Reg#100058

Bernstein?ÇÖs Restricted and Elaborated Codes

This paper gives an introduction about Basil Bernstein a renowned socio-linguist and his famous theory of language codes. It discusses the ?Ç£Restricted?Ç¥ and the ?Ç£elaborated?Ç¥ codes, talks about the relevance of these codes in our lives, and scope of research for students of linguistics.

Saima Lal Khan, Reg#100061

Scope of Gricean Pragmatics

The meaning of an utterance is made complex by various factors that distinguish what the speaker says from the meaning she intends to convey. Grice?ÇÖs Cooperative Principle explains certain complexities associated with meaning.
The presentation focused on Grice?ÇÖs Cooperative Principle explaining the distinction that Grice made between semantic & pragmatic meaning, impact that his work had on modern pragmatics, further developments that have taken place in Post Gricean Pragmatics and the research scope of Gricean Pragmatics.

Sajjida Yaseen, Reg# 100067

Tariq Rahman on Local Languages

This presentation throws light on the works of Tariq Rehman especially on ?Ç£Local languages?Ç¥ He is well known Pakistani Linguistics. He is of the view that when a language dies with it culture too dies and to promote local languages English should be given second status and not made a symbol of privileged schooling and social. Most of his work is on language, education, culture, history of Pakistan and language and politics in Pakistan. So, new researchers can use his work as a library source. They can get authentic material on the history of Pakistan. His works are also important for those on Pakistani literature written in English.

Syeda Ayesha Bokhari, Reg#100064

Chomsky?ÇÖs Theory on Language Acquisition and its application

The presentation about Noam Chomsky by Syeda Aysha Bokhari described his various works and the varied topics on which he has written. His language acquisition theory has been explained in detail along with the criticism launched on it. The impact of this theory for our understanding of L2 learning has been highlighted.
A line of thinking for the new researchers in the field of pedagogical methodology for enhancing L2 learning has also been put forward.

Uzma Islam, Reg#100060

Learner Autonomy in Pakistani Classrooms

This research review intends to highlight the importance and practical worth of learner autonomy in Pakistan where the handling of large classes poses a real challenge to teachers. The term autonomy has sparked considerable controversy, inasmuch as linguists and educationalists have failed to reach a consensus as to what autonomy really is. It also sheds some light on some of the parameters affecting, and interfering with, learners?ÇÖ self-image as well as their capacity and will to learn. It is of consequence to note that autonomy is a process, not a product. One does not become autonomous; one only works towards autonomy. The present research review tries to bring to light the real issues involved in the understanding of learner autonomy, such as hesitation on the part of teachers to shift the learning responsibility to learners themselves. For this purpose this research review includes an extensive study of the work of Zakia Sarwar as a great contributor in promoting learner autonomy and it also presents a futuristic viewpoint as to those areas where learner autonomy can be used for global purposes.

Second Language Acquisition: Issues and Challenges

Dr Riaz Hassan From National University Of Modern Languages, Islamabad,

Dr Riaz Hassan from National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, in the plenary session in a panoramic speech reflected on how English language has become largely associated with the identity of the literate Pakistani society. Criticizing one?ÇÖs language is like attacking the person. He highlighted the need of credible translation, the motivation of learning English, and the demands of internationalization in Pakistan that is through English to a large extent. English, he pointed out, has far more access than several Pakistani languages across the country.

Professor Abida Hassan From Air University, Islamabad,

Professor Abida Hassan from Air University, Islamabad, in her welcome address identified major areas of research in the field of English language in Pakistan. Reflecting on her vast experience, she regretted that despite various projects till the stages of implications, there was much that needed improvement. Student resistance, societal indifference, hostility, overcrowding, examination, time, finances, etc., demanded from all of us planning of useful programmes that could also clear the misconception about teacher training in Pakistan. She stressed on recognition of cultural factors, mother-tongue education, and improved testing and evaluation practices.

Dr Mobeena Tallat From Bahauddin Zikrya University, Multan,

Dr Mobeena Tallat from Bahauddin Zikrya University, Multan, presented a case study of child born in a Canadian family of Pakistani origin whose bilingual upbringing impacted on the choice of code in his conversation. Her paper was titled 'Second language: Attitude and choice'.

Dr Hina Ashraf From Air University, Islamabad,

Dr Hina Ashraf from Air University, Islamabad, in her paper ?ÇÿUnderstanding Pakistani English education through the discourse of media?ÇÖ briefed the audience on the dimensions of social capital, and how the language of education impacted on the formation of cognitive, structural and relational dimensions. She shared her current project which is based on an extensive study of the discourse of education in media with , and how the dimensions of social capital could be traced through a specialized corpus of letters.

Dr Sarwat Rasool From Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi,

Dr Sarwat Rasool from Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi, elaborated on the language of proverbs that creates gender bias in a paper titled ?ÇÿGender and power relationship in the language of proverbs ?Çô Implications for pedagogy?ÇÖ expanded on the English and Urdu proverbs and the effect of those on the nature of power relations in language and gender.

Ms Roudaba Shuja From Federal Government College For Women, Humak,

Ms Roudaba Shuja from Federal Government College for Women, Humak, in a presentation titled ?ÇÿCaveat and conundrum concerning language pedagogy?ÇÖ shared the experience of a project where teachers from public sector schools were involved in a materials?ÇÖ design and training project that had a very positive impact on the pedagogical practices of teachers. She stressed on the need of having more meaningful training and realistic goals for improvement in the teaching of language across the country.

Mr Luqman Hakim, A Research Scholar At The National University Of Modern Languages, Islamabad,

Mr Luqman Hakim, a research scholar at the National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, shared the findings of his research project that studies the factors that lead to codeswitching among Pakistani students. His study ?ÇÿUnderstanding bilingualism in Pakistani students?ÇÖ was administered on 108 students from English and Urdu medium backgrounds studying at various levels after completing their matriculation. He takes into account age and gender differences and the language and discourse type that could lead to codeswitching. He debated that the bilingual Pakistanis use a codeswitched English-Urdu language that has become a creole.

Mr Ayaz Shafqat, A Visiting Lecturer At The Islamic International University, Islamabad,

Mr Ayaz Shafqat, a visiting lecturer at the Islamic International University, Islamabad, shared his experience of teaching and the challenges English teachers come across. His paper was titled 'Attitude of institutions and challenges of second language acquisition'.

Dr Ayaz Asfar, From The International Islamic University, Islamabad,

Dr Ayaz Asfar, from the International Islamic University, Islamabad, in his presentation titled ?ÇÿNew perspective on second language teaching and learning?ÇÖ focused on the research gaps in the discipline and the need to understand the impact of the bilingualism and differences between child language acquisition and adult language learning processes.

Ms Irum Zulfiqar, From Air University, Islamabad,

Ms Irum Zulfiqar, from Air University, Islamabad, shared the research findings of a project where she has looked at the gap that exists between college English and university requirements. Her paper was titled ?ÇÿAbsence of smooth transition between levels of education?ÇÖ. She focused on the teachers?ÇÖ inability to use materials, audio-visual aids, and listening and speaking lessons in the general curriculum which is curtailed by the reading and writing examination papers.

Mr Aftab Ahmead From Air University, Islamabad,

Mr Aftab Ahmead from Air University, Islamabad, focussed on learning the language of the Holy Qura?ÇÖan in a presentation titled ?ÇÿLanguage and the style of the Qura?ÇÖan?ÇÖ. He presented before the audience the significance of understanding the systematic method of learning the language of the Holy Book to objectively immerse in the holy Message and its need in contemporary times.

Mr Iesar Ahmed, From Gordon College, Rawalpindi,

Mr Iesar Ahmed, from Gordon College, Rawalpindi, brought to attention the need to understand the linguistic strategies employed in postcolonial texts and ?Çÿcanonical?ÇÖ texts in a paper titled ?ÇÿAppropriating linguistic strategies in the creative literature of Pakistan?ÇÖ. He emphasized on writing back to the empire by having a critical understanding of the use of English by oriental and occidental authors.

Ms Afia Kanwal From Air University, Islamabad,

Ms Afia Kanwal from Air University, Islamabad, shared findings of her research project on cognitive styles of learners in a paper titled ?ÇÿCognitive style and strategy for vocabulary improvement?ÇÖ. Her focus was on how the different learning styles affect the cognitive capabilities of students. She proposed a strategy for building the vocabulary of second language learners by understanding the learning abilities of students.

Mr Naveed Ehsan From Air University, Islamabad,

Mr Naveed Ehsan from Air University, Islamabad, in his presentation titled ?ÇÿRemediation and challenges in standard English in Pakistan?ÇÖ brought to attention the usage of English among Pakistani students, and English expressions appropriated by Pakistani users. He shared his current project with the audience and how he intends to suggest remediation exercises that need to be undertaken by English educators to give Pakistani English its due status.

Ms Nailah Riaz From Air University, Islamabad,

Ms Nailah Riaz from Air University, Islamabad, focussed on the attitude problems of students and challenges faced by teachers in a second language classroom. Her presentation was titled ?ÇÿPakistani students?ÇÖ attitude to second language acquisition in large classes: Diagnosis and treatment?ÇÖ in which she identified the lack of communicative competence as they pass through their secondary and higher education. She shared the findings of the first phase of her research in this presentation.

Mr Rehan Ghazi A Visiting Lecturer At The International Islamic University, Islamabad,

Mr Rehan Ghazi a visiting lecturer at the International Islamic University, Islamabad, shared in his presentation the need to focus on business English. His paper titled ?ÇÿIntegration of critical pedagogy as a teaching methodology for business schools?ÇÖ was in the context of students of marketing. He particularly referred to the need of differentiating between formal and informal language.

Mr Shahinshah Babar, From Pakistan Atomic Energy Moderl College, Nilore,

Mr Shahinshah Babar, from Pakistan Atomic Energy Moderl College, Nilore, discussed the problems faced by students of mathematics but not having sufficient knowledge of English which is the language of education. His presentation titled ?ÇÿProblems in English language and its effects on mathematics learning?ÇÖ highlighted the need of effective teaching and learning by students as currently there is a mismatch between the language being taught and its application to other disciplines.

Mr Ali Akbar Awan, From The University Of Lahore, Lahore,

Mr Ali Akbar Awan, from the University of Lahore, Lahore,  highlighted the barriers faced by South Asian language learners in the learning of English. His paper ?ÇÿThe barriers of South Asian second language learner encounter in the acquisition of relative clause in English?ÇÖ. The role of relative pronouns in the relative clauses and interference from the system of the first language leads to difficulty in learning a second language.

Ms Afroz Ilyas From Air University, Islamabad,

Ms Afroz Ilyas from Air University, Islamabad, in her paper presented findings of a research project that involved academically weak students. Her paper titled ?ÇÿRole of lexis in developing writing skills in academically weak students?ÇÖ was based on her study that involved second language learners at secondary level who were helped through remedial measures to improve their lexis. She suggested activities and exercises that could be incorporated in the syllabus to help weak learners.

Ms Abida Yunus From Federal Government College For Women, F-7, Islamabad,

Ms Abida Yunus from Federal Government College for Women, F-7, Islamabad, reflected on the concerns of teachers of Arabic language. Her paper titled ?ÇÿProblems in teaching Arabic language and their solutions?ÇÖ encompassed the challenges that multiplied when it came to teaching of Arabic as materials and efforts are made for the teaching of English but are non-existent for Arabic.

Mr Muntazir Mehdi, From The National University Of Modern Languages, Islamabad,

Mr Muntazir Mehdi, from the National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, focused on the need of developing syllabus in accordance with the need of the students. His paper titled Below sub-standard study and methodologies leading to lack of communication?ÇÖ emphasized on the need of trainers and study materials to improve on the theory and practice of language teaching. Language handicaps at secondary level pull down students at higher levels, and lead to a mass of population that is deprived of higher education.

Ms Saima Afzal From Air University, Islamabad,

Ms Saima Afzal from Air University, Islamabad, in her presentation titled ?ÇÿImproving students?ÇÖ writing skills through the active learning skills?ÇÖ focused on the need of active learning strategies in the classrooms to build a meaningful learning environment for students. She shared the findings of a pilot study in this regard to allow the audience to understand the implications of active learning strategies.