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Current trends: Negotiating space in English Studies
Topic: The anatomy of verbal art: thoughts on engaging with
language in literature
That the arts are somehow good for us is a common idea, but
explaining what is meant by ?Ã‡Â£good?Ã‡Â¥ or ?Ã‡Â£us?Ã‡Â¥ or even ?Ã‡Â£art?Ã‡Â¥, is a tricky business.
[Morrison, A lesson with the art master, 2005: 26]
That literature is represented as language is obvious to
all: this attribute, it shares with such texts as specialist discourses in the
valued domains of knowledge, and of scriptures and legislature ?Ã‡Ã´ it is such
discourses that become a culture?Ã‡Ã–s cherished emblem of achievement and
excellence. But what sets literature
apart from all such valued documents is the specific kind of demands literature
makes on language whereby every thing that is of any consequence to the
identification of literature as verbal art can be said to have been created ?Ã‡Ã´
directly or indirectly ?Ã‡Ã´ by the power of language.
This is the theme I would like to develop in my presentation.
In the discourse of literary criticism, the creativity of the language of
literature has been so constantly and widely circulated that the term has
become a clich??. I hope to offer a conception of this expression which will
distance it from the simple citation of tropes and images as a mark of
creativity: instead, linguistic creativity will be presented as a concept
powerful enough to function as the foundation of a robust framework for the
study of literature. The conception I will put forward allows the analyst to
show that art in verbal art is not like a beautiful body shimmering through the
robe of linguistic meaning; rather, the art itself is verbal and the language
is artistic in ways that assist the examination of literature as an actively
functioning element of culture.
Topic: Unresolved Language Issues in
The speaker traces the ups and downs of English in our scheme of things
since the country?Ã‡Ã–s inception. Pakistan still has unresolved language issues,
which is one reason for its indifferent performance in a number of important
fields. Different top-down remedies have been tried, none of which has worked,
and some of which, with the best of intentions, have proved to be destructive.
The speaker?Ã‡Ã–s first concern is higher education, which cannot be separated from
the society it is supposed to serve. In the interests of internationalism,
present approaches are outward rather than inward looking, but linguistically,
at least, the nation is poorly prepared for it.
Topic: Classroom Ethnography: A Neglected Research Paradigm
The purpose of
this paper is to explore what is Ethnography in broad terms and to look at
Classroom Ethnography specifically. Research culture is slowly making its
presence felt in Pakistan. Teachers, especially ELT specialists, are gradually
becoming aware of the importance of research in their professional development.
In this regard, Classroom Ethnography is a research paradigm that has not been
explored by our academia. This paper will look at the range and scope of
Classroom Ethnography in our ELT scenario. It will highlight how this research
can be rewarding for both teachers and learners in identifying and resolving
pedagogic variables that may facilitate or impede language learning. It will
narrate two specific researches that were conducted based on the tradition of
Classroom Ethnography. The purpose is to show how interpretive analyses of the
events occurring in the classroom can enrich the repertoire of the teachers and
enhance their expertise both as researchers and as academics.
Topic: Teaching Language through Literature
Learners young and old, enjoy poetry as well as stories,
provided they can comprehend them. So it is a challenge for the teacher to
bring such texts to the level of the learner.
The aim of this workshop is to demonstrate how literary
pieces can be used with students with lower proficiency levels. Therefore, a
classic Shakespearian text and a short story from Mark Twain have been selected
to exploit for lower level students, who have to study such texts as a part of
their course work, but find it difficult and boring to navigate
Participants of the workshop will be given a practical
experience of using these classic pieces in innovative ways to make them
interactive and easier for students?Ã‡Ã– understanding, besides building their
language learning skills so that they can understand as well as enjoy them.
Participants will be given opportunities to share their
problems in teaching compulsory English courses, specially in large classes,
and discuss ways to make teaching of English interesting for their learners.
Handouts of activities and principles of teaching
language through literature will be shared with the participants by the
Topic: Clause Complexes in SFL and Style Analysis of
Systemic Functional Linguistics offers a new approach to the
analysis of language in all instances of its use in different contexts. In
recent years, it is increasingly used to study style in literary texts. There
are a number of ways in which SFL can be used for style analysis of literary
In this presentation, I shall demonstrate how a sequence analysis of clause
complexes in some given literary texts can help understand the patterns of
meanings as well as the patterns style.
Topic: A study of synchronic variation in
students?Ã‡Ã– codeswitched discourse
Based on data collected through directive
interaction, this paper explores students?Ã‡Ã– responses in codeswitched English
and Urdu discourses referred to as ?Ã‡Ã¿Pakistani?Ã‡Ã– (See Ashraf & Luqman 2010). The
study focuses over the synchronic variation in the Pakistani language, as we
explore the patterns of Urdu and English insertions in a total of 324 utterances
of more than a 100 students from different educational and age backgrounds. Using
corpus tools, the paper explores variations in function words, collocation
patterns, their positioning in the utterance and frequencies of insertions in
the base language.
Topic: Continuing Professional
Development Framework (CPD) Workshop
TeachEnglish Continuing Professional Development Framework is a guide to the
professional development opportunities for teachers of English available from
the British Council and other ELT providers. This workshop demonstrates how the
framework can be used to organize a range of opportunities through which
teachers can develop across the stages of their careers (from ?Ã‡Ã¿Starting?Ã‡Ã– to
?Ã‡Ã¿Specialist?Ã‡Ã–). The British Council recognizes that when dealing with new
strategies for teacher education, the first consideration is the key role of
teachers?Ã‡Ã– agency (Quereshi and Shamim 2009). As such, the framework aims to
enable teachers to look for ways to deal with new challenges by mapping British
Council teacher training courses, resources from the TeachEnglish website, and
other professional opportunities for teachers of English. By demonstrating
these links between resources on the new ?Ã‡Ã¿Train?Ã‡Ã– section of the website and the
CPD framework, participants will experience first hand the opportunities both
resources offer for improved classroom performance.
will be of interest to students considering pursuing a role in ELT as well as
their teachers and academic managers who are further on in their teaching/management
Topic: Language Choice in Teachers?Ã‡Ã– Informal Patterns of
Apart from the negative perceptions of code-switching,
teachers?Ã‡Ã– code-switching (hereafter CS) whether in classroom discourse or
informal/socialising discourse serves a variety of pedagogical purposes. So
far, a few empirical studies on code-switching related to informal/socializing
discourse are conducted in Pakistan. On the whole, however, there seems to be a
lack of awareness on the part of Pakistani teachers about the significance of
CS for informal/socialising discourse. This paper tries to identify the reasons
for CS by observing how and why teachers code-switched and what specific
pedagogical functions code-switching served in informal/socialising discourse.
For this purpose, the reasons for teachers?Ã‡Ã– socialized patterns of CS are
investigated by using an ethnographic design. The data are collected from a
series of Diploma TEFL lectures delivered by different resource
persons/teachers. Analysis of the data showed that, in most of the cases, code
switching by the teachers served some kind of pedagogical purpose or the other.
This paper, although preliminary in nature, can help arrive better
understanding of teachers?Ã‡Ã– socialized pattern of code-switching. Further, it
can also assist to get appropriate insights into the interactional patterns
between teachers and students for socialising discourse. Finally, suggestions
about the teachers?Ã‡Ã– use of code switching related to socializing discourse are
Topic: Literary Globalization and English Studies: Exploring
Critical Theory for Research and Pedagogical Practices
In the realm of literary studies, English studies has been
facing challenges from such fields as American Studies, Postcolonial Studies,
Comparative literature studies (in spite of Gayatri Spivak?Ã‡Ã–s provocative
proclamation of its death in Death of a Discipline), women?Ã‡Ã–s studies/Gender
studies, etc. Therefore, my brief presentation would explore the relevance of
critical theory and its application to the study of arts, literature, and
culture in general, especially in our own socio-cultural and political contexts
and would suggest ways to liberate ourselves from the constraints of an
intellectually limited and pedagogically unsatisfying paradigm for literary
instruction by emphasizing the need and relevance of modern critical theory. R.
S. Crane once proposed an approach, in which critical theories would be treated
heuristically. Here different theories are abridged and combined into a
"strategy" for the interpretation of texts?Ã‡Ã¶a strategy which is
"immensely rich in its critical potential". It gives teachers
something to say about a text by contextualizing it in day to day affairs of
the world and by relating it to the socio-economic, cultural/ideological
concerns. Now it is sometimes said that if theory is to perform an oppositional
role it must emphasize the relation between politics and such cultural
practices as criticism and interpretation. And on this view any approach to
teaching is fundamentally flawed which relaxes into an uncritical pluralism. To
a disinterested observer the field of theory may look as if it were divided
pluralistically among many different schools and isms, but an attitude of
scholarly disinterestedness only serves the interests of dominant cultural
powers. This radical approach draws its inspiration from Paulo Freire?Ã‡Ã–s
Pedagogy of the Oppressed (1968). From this perspective, the teaching of theory
must empower students by showing them how to disclose the ideological
conditions behind any cultural performance, and then leading them to
re-politicize their newfound knowledge by placing it in the context of the
class struggle. At a stroke this removes the barricade between theory and
practice, between academic inquiry and political agitation, because "what
universities pay us to do?Ã‡Ã¶teach?Ã‡Ã¶is our main political praxis."
Topic: Exploring plagiarism in postgraduate writing:
Copyright Protection and Digital Watermarking
Authentication and copyright protection of information
contents has always been a concern in print media. The problem has become more
critical with the increasing use of Internet and digital technologies. Besides
image, audio and video, the text is most extensively used medium travelling
over the Internet. Digital libraries offer a quick and easy access to
information such as e-books, archives, images, etc. However, make the
protection of copyright more complex and difficult. Increasing use of digital
libraries, blogs and electronic commerce has made it a necessity to protect
digital contents. Digital watermarking is a solution for copyright
protection problem. Digital Watermarking methods identify the original copyright
owner (s) of the information contents. A digital watermark (visible or
invisible code) is permanently is embedded in the data to be protected. Digital
watermarking solutions for images, audio and video are already in plain but
watermarking solutions for plain text documents are very inadequate and
inefficient in terms of robustness against attacks. Text watermarking is a
growing and challenging area of research, which might open the new horizon in
digital security world.
Topic: Roles of questions in enhancing speaking skill
research highlights the importance of Text and well designed questions
based on it in ESL CLASS. Text and the specifically designed
analytical or critical questions based on this text can make
students proficient in speaking English. These questions when posed
to students provide stimuli for enhancement
of fluency. Through repertoire of questioning techniques which
teachers can utilize in class this research provides strategy to foster
communication through critical and analytical thinking from high beginners to
Topic: Parental involvement, social class and language
Motivation is one of the most important factors in any
learning situation. . Extrinsic motivation can be of help for teenagers who may
not be intrinsically motivated at times. In Pakistan where school conditions
are unsatisfactory, parents can come and play a role by providing the child
with opportunities which can set forth their motivation. This work tends to
explore the role of Pakistani parent to the enhancement of such motivation.
However, different social classes may affect parenting differently due to the vast
differences in class cultures and opportunities available. According to Donald?Ã‡Ã–s Super, the family is a
multidimensional setup, which is comprised of a social, a psychological and an
economic dimension. It is within this context that children develop and are
motivated. Child development is also influenced by the possibilities and the
resources their family has to offer. However, belonging to a disadvantaged
social class can cause social stigmatisation and influence motivation needed as
pointed out by Pierre Bourdieu. The purpose of this research is to find out if parental
involvement can motivate learning (language) equally regardless of the social
class. A small scale pilot study was conducted to check the feasibility of the
research. Through the study analysis it is clear that the social role of
parents cannot be overlooked in the development of motivation to learn
Topic: English in Pakistani print media: Distinctive grammatical
and syntactic features of Pakistani English
English used in Pakistan has undergone considerable change
after getting rid of colonialism. Pakistani English has developed its own
grammatical and syntactic features which are shared by the other non-native
varieties of English. In this paper,
some prominent grammatical and syntactic features of Pakistani English
resulting from the interference of the Urdu language have been discussed. One
of the most recognisable aspects of Pakistani English is the occurrence of Urdu
words and phrases in Pakistani print media but in this particular paper only
the grammatical and syntactic features have been discusses. Pakistani English
evolved within a society which has a very specific social, cultural and
political structures. Urdu is an important source to create the distinctiveness
in Pakistani English. This paper is an attempt to show how Urdu impacts English
in Pakistan although the influences are undoubtedly bidirectional.
Topic: The Place of Socially and Politically Controversial
Issues in English language Curriculum in Pakistan
This paper intends to explore the existing state of the
English language curriculum for the secondary classes in Pakistan. It explores,
to what extent it serves the needs of the intended citizenship and to what
extent it meets the international standards set for the socially well equipped
students. The very aim of education, the preparation of the socially informed
citizen, is missing in this syllabus. The aspirations of the all concerned
parties, the teachers, the students and the management have not been properly
represented in the syllabus. Keeping in mind the inefficiencies and
inadequacies of the syllabus some practical suggestions have been given at the
Topic: The Implications of Critical Literacy for Pakistani
Critical literacy involves understanding the ways in which
language and literacy are used to accomplish social ends. Becoming critically
literate means developing a sense that literacy is for taking social actions
and making people aware of using literacy for their own ends.
This study explores that through Critical literacy approach
better citizenship education can be given to our students. It further
establishes the importance of critical literacy in the language classrooms and
also focuses the need to use critical literacy approach for the language
teachers in their respective classrooms. This study focuses that merely getting
conceptual knowledge of language does not create critical thinking and an
analytical mindset. For this study uses both qualitative and quantitative
methods of data collection, analysis. At first data is collected from the
English teachers of various government colleges through questionnaire based on
objectives of critical literacy designed by Critical literacy international
forum and also interviews are held to seek the opinion of the experts from
Idiomatic Expressions and Cultural
Many studies have confirmed the relationship between phraseology and
culture (Humboldt 1963; Trier 1931;Porzig 1950; Weisbgerber 1929,
1961,1962;Sapir 1949, 1964 ; Whorf 1956).
Language of a society stems from the cultural habits of a given number
of people. The present study was conducted to explore the relationship that exists
between culture and figurative language and to establish the fact that L2
learners face difficulties in comprehending the phraseology of target language
due to the differences in cultural practices. The sample for the study
consisted of 40 students of Masters level of International Islamic University.
The data was collected with the help of the diagnostic tests which consisted of
two pats. First part of the test consisted of 30 general idioms and second part
contained 30 cultural idioms. The scores were assigned with the help of a three
point ranking scale. Percentages were calculated for the correct versus
incorrect responses and presented in tabular form. The results reinforce the
relationship between phraseology and culture. The data also asserts that L2
learners face difficulty in comprehending the phraseology of the target
language owing to the difference in cultural practices.
Topic: Ice-Candy Man: A Narcissistic
Everyday life in global spectrum
runs through many a complex crisis and many a complex crisis runs through life,
simultaneously, and this crisis ridden life leaves overt and covert influences
on human beings in general and the
literary writers in particular. The difference, in terms of in-put and out-put,
between the two is, however, immense and the degree and level of influence and
feeling, that life exerts and generates, is generally inexpressible. Therefore
literary writers by creating any piece of literature not only create or produce something new but
its an invitation to writers, readers and critics to further thought. Such an
incisive and penetrating approach towards life makes one realize that we are
living in a world where truth and reality are consistently created,
deconstructed and then reconstructed through the tool of language. It
signifies, thereby, that there is no absolute truth. This idea characterizes
Ice ?Ã‡Ã´ Candy Man by Bapsi Sidhwa. And in the absence of no absolute truth her
novel presents a good study for undermining the preconceived notions of
historical truth (s) from a perspective hitherto unknown, perhaps. This aspect
of the novel can best be explored through its study from Linda Hutcheon?Ã‡Ã–s
concept of the ?Ã‡Â£narcissistic narrative?Ã‡Â¥. The present paper is thus an attempt
to recreate or rediscover history from Ice-Candy Man?Ã‡Ã–s characters?Ã‡Ã– self ?Ã‡Ã´
assertive nature or existence towards self ?Ã‡Ã´ realization or self ?Ã‡Ã´ awareness.
Memory of the chief narrator ?Ã‡Ã´ Lenny along with other marginalized voices of
undivided India is a key towards the novel being a narcissistic narrative.
Topic: Remediation and the challenge
of Standard English in Pakistan Abstract
The research study deals with
finding out some of the major causes behind the grammatical errors the
Pakistani students at school level make. The study also seeks to give some
remedial measures for improving the level of English, especially at school
level in Pakistan. The major concern behind taking up this study is that the
students studying professional courses at the higher levels still make simple
grammatical errors and this poses a challenge for the teachers teaching at
these levels. When these teachers start correcting simple mistakes and errors,
the actual purpose and objectives of the technical courses is lost somewhere in
population sample taken for collecting data was a group of twenty students each
from ten Government High Schools of Rawalpindi. Hence, this made a sample size
of two hundred students studying at Matriculation level. The suggestions for
remedial measures for the improvement of English language in Pakistan would
come from interviews
Topic: Blink blink?Ã‡Âª. Think
Gather information and then gather more information! That is what we
have always been told. We live in a society dedicated to the idea that we're
always better off gathering as much information and spending as much time as
possible in deliberation. As children, this lesson was hammered into our
brains: haste makes waste, look before you leap, stop and think. But the idea
has been challenged. There are lots of situations--particularly at times of
high pressure and stress--when haste does not make waste, when our snap
judgments and first impressions offer a much better means of making sense of
the world. Gladwell in his book ?Ã‡Ã¿Blink?Ã‡Ã– talks of --"the power of thin
slicing"--which says that as human beings we are capable of making sense
of situations based on the thinnest slice of experience it talks about rapid
cognition, about the kind of thinking that happens in a blink of an eye. The
question is; ?Ã‡Â£is teaching a thoughtful deliberation or intuitive??Ã‡Â¥ In the words
of Parker Palmer ?Ã‡Â£Good teaching is an act of generosity, a whim of the wanton
muse, a craft that may grow with practice. It is, to speak plainly, a maddening
mystery. ?Ã‡Â£Good teaching cannot be equated with technique or having more
information. It comes from the integrity of the teacher, from his of her
relation to subject and students, from the capricious chemistry of it all.?Ã‡Â¥ In
the rapidly evolving information landscape means that education methods and
practices must evolve and adapt accordingly. ?Ã‡Ã¿Information literacy?Ã‡Ã– must become
a key focus of educational institutions at all levels.I want to share a few
reflections on the mystery of intuitive teaching, whether in large lecture
halls or small rooms. I want to name some of its challenges, and suggest some
responses, without labeling it as a "problem to be solved." Only by
doing so, it seems to me, can we enlarge the community of discourse that might
encourage more and more of us to believe on the inner voice and teach well.
Topic: Little Eye to See the World Constructed by
is very complicated for human beings to understand fully and it is expressed
through language. Human beings have created so many senses and realities
through languages that every reality so expressed is convincing on its own and
yet clashes with so many others. The novel Siddhartha by Harman Hess shows the
true pictures of different realities which have been constructed through
language and experience and also deconstructed through experience and language.
Siddhartha?Ã‡Ã–s journey towards his own self is the journey of the material world
to the spiritual. Siddhartha?Ã‡Ã–s constant formulation of experience in language,
and their rejection and reformulation show how complex those experiences are,
and they are difficult to be fixed through language permanently. Because once
formulated they may yet change the meanings and significance. The problem is
that language is man made and he/she wants to present the reality of the world
which is a natural desire. So man has become the master of systems and
realities but even now he is unable to reach the fixed and final reality,
because he wants to describe natural thing through language.
Topic: Teacher Training in Public and
Private Sector Schools ?Ã‡Ã´ Lets Collaborate
Teacher Training is one of the most important aspects of education. A
trained teacher is more aware of the issues which need to be resolved
in the classroom situation in order to enhance the learning process
of the students .In Pakistan, there is a variety of schools that one comes across.
In these, the the schools operated by the government are the largest in
number. However, it is a common observation that the standard of education has
deteriorated gradually. How can the situation be improved and what role can
teacher training play in this regard is the topic of this presentation. By
analysing the current situation and by comparing the teacher training practices
being followed in the government and private sector schools, strategies will be
recommended which if practised, will improve the current
situation in the government operated schools.
Topic: Theatre, An agent of Social and
Political Change Abstract
This paper aims to highlight the trend to use drama as a tool for
socio/political change and theater?Ã‡Ã–s contribution in bringing about the social
improvement, particularly through the epic theatre. The writer aims to
highlight theater?Ã‡Ã–s notable contributions to improve humanity and human
conditions and the notable presentations of the worthy playwrights and their
impact on society, establishing a unique space through language and literature.
Human being is the product of
society. Social change involves the processes whereby values, attitudes, or
institutions of society (both formal and informal), such as education, family,
religion, peer groups, recreational avenues and industry become modified and
these are the vector for social change. Despite sharing the notion that the
theater was the optimum setting for such communication and general notions of improving
humanity, the various theories of theatrical performance came on the horizon
including the epic theatre.
Topic: Attitudinal Shift and the
process of enculturation: a case of dominance of the majority languages Abstract
This study is devoted to a serious concern of the writer about the
diminishing fate of an indigenous language spoken in the north west of Pakistan
in the presence of other mainstream languages. The present study highlights the
important of language sustenance and vitality in a language situation where the
ecological survival of minority languages is threaten by the predator majority
languages. Moreover, there is no awareness for the protecting such precious and
value able cultural and linguistic heritage. Potohari is one of such minority
languages which are facing such threat. The present study is investigating the
shift of attitude among the three generation of Potohari speakers. It is
assumed that there is a gradual shift among the three generations Potohari
speakers from their ancestral language to English and Urdu, dominant languages
of the country, moreover it is due to the lure the higher socio economic status
of these majority languages that the speakers are developing a negative
attitude for their mother tongue. Potohari is the language spoken in some areas
of Kashmir, Murree, Jehlum, Gujar Khan and Rawalpindi and areas around the
capital of Pakistan, Islamabad.
The investigator has exploited
Likert Scale of the attitude measurement for this proposed study. The study included three samples of the
native Potohari speakers, residing in Rawalpindi and Islamabad. It has been accomplished
by the means of purposive sampling.
Investigation was conducted in three stages, which along with results
will be shared.
From theory to practice: Scope of research in English language and literature
Topic: English Language in Pakistan
has not yielded the Desired Objectives. Why?
The main purpose of this
presentation is to have a healthy discussion about the problems regarding the
improvement of English language in the field of education in Pakistan.
The main features of this
discussion is to cover the problems of L2 (second language) acquisition for students and for teachers as
well, that?Ã‡Ã–s why our students are not enough proficient in L2. Although we
ourselves are teachers but we must admit that there is some negligence on our
part, and we have to overcome them. Another issue we will discuss today is
about students; that the students we receive from schools are not learners of
L2, they are the crammers and both of them are the ground realities and my
personal observation. In the last some suggestions for improvement of teaching
system is also given and the suggestions for L2?Ã‡Ã–s further improvement will be
In this seminal talk, Professor Riaz Hasan, stressed on the need of research on Pakistani language(s), and the status of English, its official and pedagogical usage in Pakistan. He highlighted the need of expanding the body of young academics in the field, and exploration of new avenues in this discipline. He gave an overview of the development of thought and philosophy in language, with a focus on English, and how various contributions paved way for new theories to emerge.
Operationalizing Bourdieu?Ã‡Ã–s theory of habitus
Drawing on qualitative and quantitative approaches of research, this presentation focused on operationalizing Bourdieu?Ã‡Ã–s theory of habitus to understand social capital formation in English and Urdu medium schools in Pakistan. The theoretical framework drew on theories of social capital and how they are affected by language learning opportunities. With a focus on an empirical study done in Karachi, this presentation was designed to develop postgraduate students?Ã‡Ã– confidence in using mixed methods in research.
Critical Theory and the Teaching of English
The 20th century literary-critical theory brought about tremendous changes in the perceptions about and study of English throughout the Anglophone world. With the rise of English in Great Britain, in the wake of the Great War, theory also became the ideological site in the Anglo-American academy under the influence of Marxist and Freudian theories, and French Structuralist and Poststructuralist theories for cultural analysis. My contention in this presentation is to analyse the role of theory for classroom practices with focus on the teaching of English. I shall be addressing such concerns as ?Ã‡Ã¿the question of ?Ã‡Â£Western Canon?Ã‡Â¥ and its relevance for the students and teachers of English in Pakistan; employment of various theoretical approaches in our search for meanings in cultural practices/analyses. The aim of the presentation is to make the audience alive to the theoretical debates surrounding the application of theory and its politics.
Citing your references
In this presentation, Mr Naveed Ehsan, introduced to the postgraduate students various referencing styles and how they are required to be incorporated in research papers. He also highlighted the significance of referencing to avoid plagiarism.
Reaching the World From Pakistan: From Local Action Research to a Global Audience
The presentation was meant to enable students understand the significance of action research, and how it could be incorporated in their research programmes. He also stressed on various techniques that could be employed by inexperienced writers to understand the demands of the academic community.
Understanding Statistics?Ã‡Ã¶an Overview of Important Concepts
A quantitative researcher is an empirical researcher that refers to the systematic empirical investigation of quantitative properties and phenomena whereas the qualitative researcher is a detective in search of clues as to motivations, desires, beliefs, ways of thinking and words for description. While a qualitative researcher seems to be working with multiple realities which are difficult to show in terms of credibility and validity.
In order to show quantifiable results and make them efficient a researcher in social science must be aware of the different tools available to them. Since Statistics is the science of collection, analysis, interpretation or explanation, and presentation of data, It has wide usage in the field of research---all the data collection and interpretation techniques used in Research are part of statistics. No matter what type of research one is working with both inferential and descriptive statistical techniques can come in handy during the data analysis and presentation stage.
Applying Marxist Literary Theory on the poetry of Parveen Shakir with focus on "Steel Mills Worker" and "We Are All Dr. Faustus."
This presentation deals with Marxist literary criticism, focusing on two poems of Parveen Shakir ( a renowned Urdu poetess of Pakistan) translated by Alamgir Hashmi (a well known Pakistani English poet). Literature is a vital part of every human culture and is a powerful social tool. Apart from readers, philosophers and literary critics have for centuries been reading and analyzing it differently. But, because of rapid socio-political, cultural, religious and economic changes, during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries there emerged many literary theories changing the perception of a writer and reader towards life and literature. Marxist literary criticism is one such theory that lends one different angle of vision when it comes to the study and analysis of literary criticism. Presently, with arbitrary-capitalism playing havoc all over the world it has acquired greater relevance in literary fields. To say that it is yet again an emerging literary current will not be wrong.
Conversational Interviewing Approaches of Collaborative Language Systems
Interviews are measured as an authentic technique in doing qualitative research. Collaborative Approach or Post-Modern Collaborative Approach is a theory practiced in conversation for getting reliable data. In this paper, this theory is applied on interviews to get authentic data therefore it is named as Conversational Interviewing Approaches of Collaborative Language Systems. The multiple steps process of this theory would be useful for a researcher to implement the strategies to get real data. This process would useful to understand the essence interviewer as a researcher. The focus of this paper is to research for new patterns which can be possible after removing the differences between interviewer and interviewee. More focus is given on the data which a researcher gets from conversation. The analysis of received data is a latent step in this approach. There is always anticipation for emerging new patterns (Meta-Narratives Knowledge) for research to contribute realistically. The resourcefulness of this approach is that it expands the horizons of research.
Riaz Hassan?Ã‡Ã–s *Plea: A Student/teacher?Ã‡Ã–s Perspective
This presentation throws light on the scope of research in a book (Teaching Writing to second Language Learners, 2008) by a Pakistani Linguist: Riaz Hassan who has mammoth?Ã‡Ã–s contribution to English Language and Linguistics in Pakistan particularly and South Asia generally.
It talks about Riaz Hassan?Ã‡Ã–s publications, his book Teaching English to second Language Learners, 2008, and the focus of this book. It?Ã‡Ã–s demonstration lays out Riaz?Ã‡Ã–s *plea to the researchers and teachers and lets them know what a vast range of research (weaknesses in Language) they have in this work, especially asking the participants of the seminar to ponder on *remediation of writing, inviting them to experiment a theory of group work, pair work, individual work, changing groups, changing pairs, discovering better workability that might help the adult South Asian students to enhance quality of their research submissions for future research prospects.
The Contribution of John J. Gumperz in the development of the idea ?Ã‡Â£Code-Switching?Ã‡Â¥
This presentation focuses on the contribution of John J. Gumperz in the development of the idea ?Ã‡Â£Code-Switching?Ã‡Â¥. It begins with the historical background of Code-Switching so as to enable the readers to know that how and when the idea of Code-Switching emerged. Then the main focus is on the efforts and works of John J. Gumperz for the development of this phenomenon. In this regard, his work ?Ã‡Â£Situational & Metaphorical Code-Switching?Ã‡Â¥ in 1972 and ?Ã‡Â£Conversational Code-Switching, along with the six basic functions of Code-Switching?Ã‡Â¥ in 1982, are discussed in detail. The study of these works will highlight the contribution of John J. Gumperz?Ã‡Ã–s work on ?Ã‡Â£Code-Switching?Ã‡Â¥ in establishing the forms and functions of it. This study will also show the importance of John J. Gumperz?Ã‡Ã–s work and its influence on his successors.
Understanding Halliday?Ã‡Ã–s Systemic Functional Theory
This presentation is aimed at acquainting the audience with Professor M.A.K Halliday and the Systemic Functional Theory established by him. The presentation will present a layman?Ã‡Ã–s approach to the theory and also focus on it?Ã‡Ã–s practical application in the world and the students of Ms/MPhil English at Air University, Islamabad.
Attitude towards English language learning in Pakistan
In Pakistani community where different languages co-exist, language attitudes play an important role in the lives of the users of these languages. English language enjoys a high status in Pakistan as the language of education, law, science, technology and Government. It has become a status symbol, a refine medium of communication. It is the lingua franca among the provinces. The status of English as a language of power and elitism reflects the positive attitude towards English language learning in Pakistan.
Bernstein?Ã‡Ã–s Restricted and Elaborated Codes
This paper gives an introduction about Basil Bernstein a renowned socio-linguist and his famous theory of language codes. It discusses the ?Ã‡Â£Restricted?Ã‡Â¥ and the ?Ã‡Â£elaborated?Ã‡Â¥ codes, talks about the relevance of these codes in our lives, and scope of research for students of linguistics.
Scope of Gricean Pragmatics
The meaning of an utterance is made complex by various factors that distinguish what the speaker says from the meaning she intends to convey. Grice?Ã‡Ã–s Cooperative Principle explains certain complexities associated with meaning.
The presentation focused on Grice?Ã‡Ã–s Cooperative Principle explaining the distinction that Grice made between semantic & pragmatic meaning, impact that his work had on modern pragmatics, further developments that have taken place in Post Gricean Pragmatics and the research scope of Gricean Pragmatics.
Tariq Rahman on Local Languages
This presentation throws light on the works of Tariq Rehman especially on ?Ã‡Â£Local languages?Ã‡Â¥ He is well known Pakistani Linguistics. He is of the view that when a language dies with it culture too dies and to promote local languages English should be given second status and not made a symbol of privileged schooling and social. Most of his work is on language, education, culture, history of Pakistan and language and politics in Pakistan. So, new researchers can use his work as a library source. They can get authentic material on the history of Pakistan. His works are also important for those on Pakistani literature written in English.
Chomsky?Ã‡Ã–s Theory on Language Acquisition and its application
The presentation about Noam Chomsky by Syeda Aysha Bokhari described his various works and the varied topics on which he has written. His language acquisition theory has been explained in detail along with the criticism launched on it. The impact of this theory for our understanding of L2 learning has been highlighted.
A line of thinking for the new researchers in the field of pedagogical methodology for enhancing L2 learning has also been put forward.
Second Language Acquisition: Issues and Challenges
Learner Autonomy in Pakistani Classrooms
This research review intends to highlight the importance and practical worth of learner autonomy in Pakistan where the handling of large classes poses a real challenge to teachers. The term autonomy has sparked considerable controversy, inasmuch as linguists and educationalists have failed to reach a consensus as to what autonomy really is. It also sheds some light on some of the parameters affecting, and interfering with, learners?Ã‡Ã– self-image as well as their capacity and will to learn. It is of consequence to note that autonomy is a process, not a product. One does not become autonomous; one only works towards autonomy. The present research review tries to bring to light the real issues involved in the understanding of learner autonomy, such as hesitation on the part of teachers to shift the learning responsibility to learners themselves. For this purpose this research review includes an extensive study of the work of Zakia Sarwar as a great contributor in promoting learner autonomy and it also presents a futuristic viewpoint as to those areas where learner autonomy can be used for global purposes.
Dr Riaz Hassan from National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, in the plenary session in a panoramic speech reflected on how English language has become largely associated with the identity of the literate Pakistani society. Criticizing one?Ã‡Ã–s language is like attacking the person. He highlighted the need of credible translation, the motivation of learning English, and the demands of internationalization in Pakistan that is through English to a large extent. English, he pointed out, has far more access than several Pakistani languages across the country.
Professor Abida Hassan from Air University, Islamabad, in her welcome address identified major areas of research in the field of English language in Pakistan. Reflecting on her vast experience, she regretted that despite various projects till the stages of implications, there was much that needed improvement. Student resistance, societal indifference, hostility, overcrowding, examination, time, finances, etc., demanded from all of us planning of useful programmes that could also clear the misconception about teacher training in Pakistan. She stressed on recognition of cultural factors, mother-tongue education, and improved testing and evaluation practices.
Dr Mobeena Tallat from Bahauddin Zikrya University, Multan, presented a case study of child born in a Canadian family of Pakistani origin whose bilingual upbringing impacted on the choice of code in his conversation. Her paper was titled 'Second language: Attitude and choice'.
Dr Hina Ashraf from Air University, Islamabad, in her paper ?Ã‡Ã¿Understanding Pakistani English education through the discourse of media?Ã‡Ã– briefed the audience on the dimensions of social capital, and how the language of education impacted on the formation of cognitive, structural and relational dimensions. She shared her current project which is based on an extensive study of the discourse of education in media with , and how the dimensions of social capital could be traced through a specialized corpus of letters.
Dr Sarwat Rasool from Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi, elaborated on the language of proverbs that creates gender bias in a paper titled ?Ã‡Ã¿Gender and power relationship in the language of proverbs ?Ã‡Ã´ Implications for pedagogy?Ã‡Ã– expanded on the English and Urdu proverbs and the effect of those on the nature of power relations in language and gender.
Ms Roudaba Shuja from Federal Government College for Women, Humak, in a presentation titled ?Ã‡Ã¿Caveat and conundrum concerning language pedagogy?Ã‡Ã– shared the experience of a project where teachers from public sector schools were involved in a materials?Ã‡Ã– design and training project that had a very positive impact on the pedagogical practices of teachers. She stressed on the need of having more meaningful training and realistic goals for improvement in the teaching of language across the country.
Mr Luqman Hakim, a research scholar at the National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, shared the findings of his research project that studies the factors that lead to codeswitching among Pakistani students. His study ?Ã‡Ã¿Understanding bilingualism in Pakistani students?Ã‡Ã– was administered on 108 students from English and Urdu medium backgrounds studying at various levels after completing their matriculation. He takes into account age and gender differences and the language and discourse type that could lead to codeswitching. He debated that the bilingual Pakistanis use a codeswitched English-Urdu language that has become a creole.
Mr Ayaz Shafqat, a visiting lecturer at the Islamic International University, Islamabad, shared his experience of teaching and the challenges English teachers come across. His paper was titled 'Attitude of institutions and challenges of second language acquisition'.
Dr Ayaz Asfar, from the International Islamic University, Islamabad, in his presentation titled ?Ã‡Ã¿New perspective on second language teaching and learning?Ã‡Ã– focused on the research gaps in the discipline and the need to understand the impact of the bilingualism and differences between child language acquisition and adult language learning processes.
Ms Irum Zulfiqar, from Air University, Islamabad, shared the research findings of a project where she has looked at the gap that exists between college English and university requirements. Her paper was titled ?Ã‡Ã¿Absence of smooth transition between levels of education?Ã‡Ã–. She focused on the teachers?Ã‡Ã– inability to use materials, audio-visual aids, and listening and speaking lessons in the general curriculum which is curtailed by the reading and writing examination papers.
Mr Aftab Ahmead from Air University, Islamabad, focussed on learning the language of the Holy Qura?Ã‡Ã–an in a presentation titled ?Ã‡Ã¿Language and the style of the Qura?Ã‡Ã–an?Ã‡Ã–. He presented before the audience the significance of understanding the systematic method of learning the language of the Holy Book to objectively immerse in the holy Message and its need in contemporary times.
Mr Iesar Ahmed, from Gordon College, Rawalpindi, brought to attention the need to understand the linguistic strategies employed in postcolonial texts and ?Ã‡Ã¿canonical?Ã‡Ã– texts in a paper titled ?Ã‡Ã¿Appropriating linguistic strategies in the creative literature of Pakistan?Ã‡Ã–. He emphasized on writing back to the empire by having a critical understanding of the use of English by oriental and occidental authors.
Ms Afia Kanwal from Air University, Islamabad, shared findings of her research project on cognitive styles of learners in a paper titled ?Ã‡Ã¿Cognitive style and strategy for vocabulary improvement?Ã‡Ã–. Her focus was on how the different learning styles affect the cognitive capabilities of students. She proposed a strategy for building the vocabulary of second language learners by understanding the learning abilities of students.
Mr Naveed Ehsan from Air University, Islamabad, in his presentation titled ?Ã‡Ã¿Remediation and challenges in standard English in Pakistan?Ã‡Ã– brought to attention the usage of English among Pakistani students, and English expressions appropriated by Pakistani users. He shared his current project with the audience and how he intends to suggest remediation exercises that need to be undertaken by English educators to give Pakistani English its due status.
Ms Nailah Riaz from Air University, Islamabad, focussed on the attitude problems of students and challenges faced by teachers in a second language classroom. Her presentation was titled ?Ã‡Ã¿Pakistani students?Ã‡Ã– attitude to second language acquisition in large classes: Diagnosis and treatment?Ã‡Ã– in which she identified the lack of communicative competence as they pass through their secondary and higher education. She shared the findings of the first phase of her research in this presentation.
Mr Rehan Ghazi a visiting lecturer at the International Islamic University, Islamabad, shared in his presentation the need to focus on business English. His paper titled ?Ã‡Ã¿Integration of critical pedagogy as a teaching methodology for business schools?Ã‡Ã– was in the context of students of marketing. He particularly referred to the need of differentiating between formal and informal language.
Mr Shahinshah Babar, from Pakistan Atomic Energy Moderl College, Nilore, discussed the problems faced by students of mathematics but not having sufficient knowledge of English which is the language of education. His presentation titled ?Ã‡Ã¿Problems in English language and its effects on mathematics learning?Ã‡Ã– highlighted the need of effective teaching and learning by students as currently there is a mismatch between the language being taught and its application to other disciplines.
Mr Ali Akbar Awan, from the University of Lahore, Lahore, highlighted the barriers faced by South Asian language learners in the learning of English. His paper ?Ã‡Ã¿The barriers of South Asian second language learner encounter in the acquisition of relative clause in English?Ã‡Ã–. The role of relative pronouns in the relative clauses and interference from the system of the first language leads to difficulty in learning a second language.
Ms Afroz Ilyas from Air University, Islamabad, in her paper presented findings of a research project that involved academically weak students. Her paper titled ?Ã‡Ã¿Role of lexis in developing writing skills in academically weak students?Ã‡Ã– was based on her study that involved second language learners at secondary level who were helped through remedial measures to improve their lexis. She suggested activities and exercises that could be incorporated in the syllabus to help weak learners.
Ms Abida Yunus from Federal Government College for Women, F-7, Islamabad, reflected on the concerns of teachers of Arabic language. Her paper titled ?Ã‡Ã¿Problems in teaching Arabic language and their solutions?Ã‡Ã– encompassed the challenges that multiplied when it came to teaching of Arabic as materials and efforts are made for the teaching of English but are non-existent for Arabic.
Mr Muntazir Mehdi, from the National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, focused on the need of developing syllabus in accordance with the need of the students. His paper titled Below sub-standard study and methodologies leading to lack of communication?Ã‡Ã– emphasized on the need of trainers and study materials to improve on the theory and practice of language teaching. Language handicaps at secondary level pull down students at higher levels, and lead to a mass of population that is deprived of higher education.
Ms Saima Afzal from Air University, Islamabad, in her presentation titled ?Ã‡Ã¿Improving students?Ã‡Ã– writing skills through the active learning skills?Ã‡Ã– focused on the need of active learning strategies in the classrooms to build a meaningful learning environment for students. She shared the findings of a pilot study in this regard to allow the audience to understand the implications of active learning strategies.